These radicals are produced when the energetic radiation strikes a molecule in the living issue, and breaks it into ionized (electrically charged) fragments. With a 1 Mt bomb, they remain significant out to the 2 psi overpressure zone (5 miles). However two caveats apply: Acute Localized Tissue Exposure. The principal drawback is its complexity and the precision required to make it work. It is also reduced by atmospheric absorption and scattering. As a result, for all its enormous power Big Ivan remains the “cleanest” nuclear weapon ever tested, as it derived more than half its power from nuclear fusion with far fewer radionuclides produced per megaton. The famous TTAPS (Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagan) proposal regarding a potential "nuclear winter" is another possible occurrence. Khrushchev wanted a political spectacle to shock and awe the West, and it had better go right. Thus at the 60-100 million degrees C of a nuclear explosion, which is some 10,000 times hotter than the surface of the sun, the brightness (per unit area) is some 10 quadrillion (10^16) times greater!

The intensity of these emissions depends very heavily on the type of weapon and the specific design.

The higher the burst altitude, the weaker the shock wave is when it first reaches the ground. The insertion time is large - over 1 millisecond. Blast effects are most dangerous in built-up areas due to the large amounts of projectiles created, and the presence of obstacles to be hurled against. The rule of sevens corresponds to an approximate t^-1.2 scaling relationship.

Alpha emitting heavy elements can be serious health risks also.
After 6 months, the rate of decline becomes much more rapid. The equations below provide approximate scaling laws for relating the destructive radius of each effect with yield: If Y is in multiples (or fractions) of 2.5 kt, then the result is in km (and all the constants equal one). Latent radiation effects (i.e. Surprisingly, very few cases of injury were noted in Japan.
The fraction of a bomb's yield emitted as thermal radiation, blast, and ionizing radiation are essentially constant for all yields, but the way the different forms of energy interact with air and targets vary dramatically. Conflagrations can spread considerable distances from their origins.

Thus doubling the density of a pit that is slightly sub-critical (thereby making it into nearly four critical masses) provides sufficient reactivity insertion for a bomb. Calculations demonstrate that one megaton of fission, typical of a two megaton H-bomb, will create enough beta radiation to blackout an area 400 kilometres (250 mi) across for five minutes. The principal source of long-term external exposure is cesium-137 (30 year half-life, 0.6 MeV gamma energy). If the effect occurs at ground zero the ground range can be derived from slant range and burst altitude (Pythagorean theorem).

Three days later, a second bomb detonated over Nagasaki.

ground level.

Kinetic energy created by this expansion contributes to the formation of a shockwave which expands spherically from the center. As the shock wave expands and cools to around 3000 degrees, it stops glowing and gradually also becomes transparent. The key idea in implosion assembly is to compress a subcritical spherical, or sometimes cylindrical, fissionable mass by using specially designed high explosives. "Within 17 meters, the explosion temperature was 300,000 degrees Celsius.

Walls bring people together by stopping divisive terrorists", "Alsos: Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: The Parted Veil", Calder, Nigel "The effects of a 100 Megaton bomb", Sartori, Leo "Effects of nuclear weapons".

As the fireball expands, it cools and the wavelength of the photons transporting energy drops. The Tsar Bomb fell to its glory, its oddly sleek locomotive-sized mass trailing its gigantic parachute as it dropped towards ground zero. Beta burns were encountered in Marshall Islanders, and the crew of a Japanese fishing vessel, following the Castle Bravo test which unexpectedly dumped high fallout levels over a large area.

A first-stage fission device generates the heat, pressure and radiation to ignite nuclear fusion in a second-stage fuel vessel, and the more fusion fuel, the bigger the reaction. Below an overpressure of 70 psi, the dynamic pressure is less than the overpressure; above 70 psi it exceeds the overpressure. The only way a 3rd degree burn can heal is by skin regrowth from the edges, a slow process that usually results in scarring, unless skin grafts are used.

Thermalized neutrons trapped in the fusion fuel, which are left over from the intense fission neutron flux, initiate a chain reaction as soon as the rod becomes critical. Due to its short half-life it is most dangerous in the weeks immediately after the explosion, but hazardous amounts can persist for a few months. The first nuclear bomb meant to kill humans exploded over Hiroshima, Japan, on Aug. 6, 1945. If the material is a poor thermal conductor, the heat is confined to the surface of the material.

[39], At the explosion of nuclear bombs lightning discharges sometimes occur.

Pattison, J.E., Hugtenburg, R.P., Beddoe, A.H., and Charles, M.W. A two-fold compression will boost a slightly sub-critical solid mass to nearly four critical masses. Iodine-131 is a beta and gamma emitter with a half-life of 8.07 days (specific activity 124,000 curies/g) Its decay energy is 970 KeV; usually divided between 606 KeV beta, 364 KeV gamma. This reaction can be used by simply allowing the fission explosion to heat up the fuel to fusion temperatures, requiring at most modest compression by the fission reaction itself.

Epilation and skin lesions follow. As yields increase above 100 kt, progressively more and more of the total fallout is injected into the stratosphere. Loss of eardrums can occur, but this is not a life threatening injury. The result is bleaching of the visual pigments and temporary blindness for up to 40 minutes. Anything that will increase the confinement time of the fissionable core or decrease the generation time, even slightly, can cause a significant increase in bomb yield. Rammanohav, Reddy C. Effects of a Nuclear Bomb Attack. It comprises some 3-3.5% of total fission products - 200 curies/kt.

Tables like these are calculated from nuclear weapons effects scaling laws. The sievert is similar to the rem, but is derived from the gray instead of the rad. Below 100 REMS

so that the matter is at the same temperature as the fuel powering the explosion). The net result is that about 180 MeV is actually available to generate nuclear explosions, the remainder of the decay energy shows up over time as fallout (or is carried away by the virtually undetectable neutrinos).

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